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The export of defense-related articles and services on the United States Munitions List (US-ML) is governed by the Department of State under the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (STAR).

The Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) is responsible for implementing and enforcing the Code of Federal Regulations Title 15 chapter VII, sub-chapter C, also known as Export Administration Regulations (EAR), in the United States. The BIS regulates the export and reexport of most commercial items.

Some commodities require a license in order to export. There are different requirements to export lawfully depending on the product or service being exported. Depending on the category[3] the ‘item’ falls under, the company may need to obtain a license prior to exporting. EAR restrictions can vary from country to country. The most restricted destinations are countries under economic embargoes or designated as supporting terrorist activities, including Cuba, North Korea, Sudan, Syria and Iran (see: Sanctions against Iran). Some products have received worldwide restrictions prohibiting exports. If any items would support a proliferation activity, such as nuclear, chemical/biological, or missile proliferation activities in a country of concern, a license would be required. Part 744 of the Export Administration Regulations spells out the specific regulations related to end-user and end-use controls. There are many prohibited end users. See the consolidated U.S. Government screening list, including proscribed parties from the Departments of State and Treasury as well as Commerce

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